Models 




ABC  
ASMUS  Diffusion and Stream Flow Model of Urban Structures 
AUSTALPC  TA LUFT Diffusion Model 
CAR  Calculation of Air Pollution caused by Road Traffic 
CPB  Canyon Plume Box  Urban Canyon Model 
DASIM  
DIWIMO  Diagnostic Wind Field Model 
ENVImet  Threedimensional Microscale Urban Climate Model 
FITNAH  Flow over Complex Terrain with Natural and Anthropogenic Heat Sources 
FOOT  
GOSOL  
IMMPROG  Immission Prediction for Pollutants from Point and Line Sources 
IMMIVER  Dispersion of Pollutants near Urban Roadways with Low Density Buildings in Urban Areas 
KALM  Drainage Flow Model 
KAMM  Karlsruher Mesoscale Model 
ISISKFZ  ISIS 
KLIMM  Climate Model Mainz 
LASAT  Lagrangian Simulation of Aerosol Transport 
LPDM  Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model of the DWD 
LUFTPLAN  ProgramSystem of Regional and Local Air Quality Analysis 
MEMI  
METDIA  Regional Diagnostic Stream Flow Model 
METKAT  Drainage Flow Model 
METODO  Odour Dispersion Model 
METSUN  Shade Model 
METTAL  Dispersion Program according to TALuft 
MEMO  Mesoscale Model 
METRAS  Mesoscale Model 
MIMO  Microscale Model 
MISKAM  Microscale Climate and Dispersion Model 
MLuS96P  Dispersion near Roadways without or with Low Margin Building Density 
MUKLIMO  Microscale Urban Climate Model 
MUKLIMO3  Microscale Urban Climate Model 
PROKAS  Microscale Urban Climate Model 
P&K_xxxx  Dispersion Program according to TA Luft and VDIGuidelines 
REWIMET  Wind Field Simulation, mesoscale 
SHADOW  Radiation Simulation 
STREET  Air Pollution in Urban Areas 
VDI 3782 Bl.1  Gaussian Dispersion Model for Air Quality Policies 
VDI 3945 Bl.1  Gaussian Cloud Model (PuffModel) 
WINMISKAM  Microscale Climate and Dispersion Model for Windows 
Hardware:
Program Development:
Price:
Contact:
ASMUS (Dispersion and Stream Flow Model for Urban Structures)
The principle of the microscale model ASMUS follows the concept shown by Röckle (1990). Beginning with an estimated starting wind field the threedimensional stream flow field is determined with the help of a variation method. To obtain results the freedom of divergence of the calculated velocity field is a necessary requirement. The quality and realism of the results of this diagnostic wind field model depends crucially on the starting conditions. Thus, the starting wind field must be given as accurate as possible. The diagnostic stream flow model doesn't show any direct indicator for turbulence (necessary for the dispersion), it first solves a balance equation for turbulence energy that makes it possible to consider transport and diffusion as well as production and dissipation.
Applications: Direct surroundings of the traffic measuring station "Göttinger Straße" in Hannover
Hardware: ?
Program Development: R. Röckle. G. Gross
Literature: Röckle R., Bestimmung der Strömungsverhältnisse im Bereich komplexer Bebauungsstrukturen  Diss. Meteorol. Inst. TH Darmstadt (1990); Gross G., Janssen U., Röckle R., ASMUS  Ein numerisches Modell zur Berechnung der Strömung und der Schadstoffverteilung im Bereich einzelner Gebäude, I: Das Strömungsmodell, Meteorl. Ztschr.1993
Price: ?
Contact: Prof. G. Gross, Prof. Etling, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimatologie, Universität Hannover
AUSTALPC (TA LUFT Dispersion Model)
AUSTALPC is a model that calculates the additional strain caused by air polluting sources. The program is a PC version of AUSTAL86, the reference program that calculates dispersion according to appendix C of the TA Luft. The Bundesminister für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit has made AUSTAL86 public in the Bundesanzeiger in 1987.
AUSTALPC calculates for every point average and 98%  value of the sum frequency distribution for gases and compounds. The possibility to choose another perzentiles exists, too. The programsystem determines estimationregions and corresponding estimationareas according to the guidelines of TA Luft and determines indicators for additional air pollution IIZ and I2Z.
The program can be used with up to 50 point and area sources in any combination and considers optionally the influence of buildings according to dispersion conditions.
Emission data is required as input as well as the geometry of the sources and a representative frequency distribution of meteorological data at the location of the facility. The program is capable to accept meteorological input data according to the guidelines of Deutscher Wetter Dienst (DWD) for the available dispersion category statistics of different locations. These statistics are available on diskette and can be obtained by the DWD.
AUSTALPC is equipped with an easy to handle menu control. All data is managed in a database. Output is possible in tables on the screen or printer. Furthermore, there are possibilties for output in form of graphs on the screen and the printer (black/white and color).
It is possible to calculate stack height in complex terrain by using the additional module KAMIN I. The module DEPOSIT makes it possible to calculate wet and dry deposition (soil input). The odour dispersion (Faktor 10Model, VDI 3782, Blatt 4 Entwurf) is determined with the modules FAKTOR or GEODOR. Dispersion of cooling towers can be calculated with the module KÜHLTURM.
Hardware: PC, 386er and higher, MSDOS 3.xx 6.xx, CoProzessor, required disk space 840 MB
Program Development: Geomet
Price: AUSTALPC 18 500.DM; KAMIN I 1000. DM; KAMIN II 4000. DM;
FAKTOR10 2000.DM; GEODOR 6000. DM;
DEPOSIT 6000.DM; KÜHLTURM 3000.DM
Contact: GEOMET Umweltberatung und Regionalplanung, Luitpoldstraße 46, D10781 Berlin, Tel.: +49(0)30 216 5072, Fax: +49(0)30 215 7477
(exefile): D_AUSTAL.EXE ( 1.6 MB ), Version 3.2
CAR (Calculation of Air Pollution from Road Traffic)
The model CAR is a simple model to estimate pollution caused by road traffic. It was originally developed by TNO for the Netherlands only (vehicles, meteorology), but is now also available as the english version "CAR International". Especially, in the Netherlands CAR is intensively used. The model is based on investigations in wind tunnels, theorethical considerations and measurements of dispersion. To use CAR there is a need only for common meteorological input data. CAR calculates annual percentiles as well as averages for inert gases and NO2.
After the input of the latest countryspecific emission factors for CO, NOx, Benzene, Lead, Black Smoke as well as existing background concentrations CAR calculates according to additional information of velocity, daily traffic traffic density (DTV), portion of heavy traffic (%), distance to the roadway (m), drive mode (selection out of 5), type of roadway (5 different types) and tree factor (3 types) concentrations of pollutants.
The model is an empirical screening model that makes a first appraisal of pollutant concentrations with only little effort possible.
Hardware: PC, Windows, harddisk, 3,5'' disk drive, VGA Monitor
Program Development:
Price: 1 950. Dfl (Netherland Gulden)
Contact: Ing. J. den Boeft, TNOMEP, P.O.Box 6011, 2600 JA Delft, Netherlands, Tel.: +31 15 2 69 60 16, Fax: +31 15 2 61 72 17, email: boeft@mep.tno.nl
CPB (Canyon Plume Box Urban Canyon Model)
The GEOMET Urban Canyon Model (CPB) makes it is possible to calculate polluntant concentrations in an urban canyon caused by vehicles. The implemented model has three different levels. First of all, when the stream flow is not parallel to roadways the model calculates an average stream flow field according to Hotchkiss and Harlow. Is a stream flow parallel to the roadway under investigation in existence, there is a Gaussian plume model, which considers reflexions on canyon walls, implemented. After that mechanically induced turbulence will be determined and finally pollutant concentrations at receptor points with a combination of Gaussian plumes /BoxModel attempt will be calculated. The model is valid for a height/width ratio of an urban canyon from 0.5 to 2.0. The model calculates averages and the 98%value of chemical inert substances. NO2 is calculated with a simple transformation of NO 0to NO2 under presence of ozone with a known concentration.
The results of calculated polluntant concentrations must be understood in a conservative sense as an appraisal, because there is no consideration of fresh air brought into road canyons through intersections, spaces, etc.
Hardware: PC
Program Development: GEOMET
Price: 7 500.DM (monthly lease possible)
Contact: GEOMET Umweltberatung und Regionalplanung, Luitpoldstraße 46, D10781 Berlin, Tel.: +49(0)30 216 5072, Fax: +49(0)30 215 7477
(exefile): D_CPB.EXE ( 816 KB ), Version 2, 3/95
DASIMIMMI: General dispersion calculation, e.g. for TA LUFT or UVP, it is possible to define any configured sources. A stationary solution for diffusion equations is used. It is possible to calculate single events, time series and statistical indicators.
DASIMSTOER: Dispersion calculation for safety analysis, risk estimation and malfunctionconstructions. It is possible to use stationary or instationary diffusion equations. Sources can have any shape. Variations of source emissions and of meteorological parameters can be considered. It is possible to calculate single events or time series.
DASIMODEUR: Dispersion of odours. The program has the same structure as DASIMIMMI. Additionally, it has a module that makes it possible to deduce odour indicators from averages.
DASIMKFZ: Dispersion of vehicle emissions (microscale model). It is possible to define 100 lane sections with constant emissions. The input data that is needed to determine emissions is traffic data. With the help of a emission module emissions can be calculated. It is possible to calculate single events, time series and statistical indicators.
DASIMCOMBI: Complete edition of the four described programs.
Hardware: PC, DOS or Windows
Program Development: Meteorologisches Institut, TH Darmstadt
Price: Must be requested
Contact: TH Darmstadt, Institut für Meteorologie, Hochschulstraße 1, D64289 Darmstadt, Tel.: +49(0) 6151 162170, Fax: +49(0) 6151 163257
DIWIMO (Diagnostic Wind Field Model)
The basic idea of diagnostic wind field modelling (two horizontal velocity components, one vertical velocity component) is, to calculate a low divergence wind field with the help of a threedimensional wind field (it is not possible to attain freedom of divergence with a numerical model). For that the gradient field of a scalar will be overlying the initial wind field (to balance the pressure) and tries to minimize the divergence of the resulting wind field. In the practical implementation this leads to the solution of a PoissonEquation with mixed marginal conditions. DIWIMO is using a terrain following coordinate system. The greater mathematical and programming effort is leveled out with higher precision of the calculations. Atmospheric stability can approximately be considered with a density weighting factor, which determines the ratio of vertical to horizontal divergences. The calculated wind field has the character of a potential stream. Advection and diffusion effects (e.g. dynamic caused stream transfer) and thermal induced flows (e.g. convection, drainage flows, downslope winds) are not taken into account.
The numerical method is a differential method with a shifted equidistant grid. Any grid width can be determined independently within certain limits. The vertical grid is not equidistant and has a higher resolution near the ground. The complete theory of the model can be found in Moussiopoulos (1989), although several changes were made in the model by the Meteorologischen Institut of the University of Freiburg.
The initial wind field can be given in different ways:
 Constant with height
 Potential wind profiles near the ground (up to approximately 100 m above the ground)
 Empirical profiles of the boundary layer to consider Coriolistorsion of wind with height
The model can for example be used for the following questions:
 Provision of wind fields for Eulerian or Lagrangian dispersion models for dispersion calculations
 Estimation of affection of the wind field through planned building projects
 Transfer of wind statistics to locations where no wind measurements are available
 Synthetic wind statistics
 Ground wind maps (e. g. use of wind energy)
Hardware: PC, 486er and higher
Program Development: Dr. Schädler Ingenieurbüro Dr. A. Lohmeyer,
Price: The program is not for sale, calculations are offered
Calculation services with DIWIMO: Ingenieurbüro Dr. A. Lohmeyer, An der Roßweid 3, D76229 Karlsruhe, Tel. (+)49(0)721 625100, Fax: (+)49(0)721 6251030, email: lohmeyer_ka@tonline.de
ENVImet (Threedimensional Microscale Urban Climate Model)
ENVImet is capable to simulate interactions between
microscale shaping of the environment (shaping of buildings, etc. ) and micro climate in cities or in rural areas.
The typical scale of the horizontal resolution is 0.5 to 10m and the investigation period
lasts 24 to 48 hours.
The model predicts stream flow fields, temperature distribution and humidity distribution
as well as turbulence in a threedimensional model with a temporal resolution of 10
seconds.
The model considers among others:
 Shortwave and longwave radiation including shade, reflexion and heat caused by vegetation and facade
 Evaporation, transpiration and sensible heat flux of vegetation to the atmosphere, simulation of plant physiological parameters
 Surface temperature of the ground and of facades for every grid point
 Water and energy balcance of the ground
It is possible to choose any constellation of buildings, vegetation as well as different surface and soiltypes in the perpendicular model grid.
The model runs on a PC under Windows NT, required at least 32 MByte RAM
(depends on the size of the model) and a PENTIUM 200 or faster processor.
The output files of the model can easily be updated with the auxiliary program LEONARDO in
many different ways.
Program Development: ENVImet was developed in the framework of the promotion by Michael Bruse at the Geographical Institut of the University of Bochum and is still in a testing period, but it is possible to obtain a demo version.
For more information: www.geographie.ruhrunibochum.de/agklima/envimet/index.htm
Michael Bruse
Arbeitsgruppe Klimaforschung, Geographisches Institut der Universität Bochum , Geb. NA
4/172 ,Universitätsstrasse 150, D 44801 Bochum,
Tel.: +49(0)234 700 4244, Fax: +49(0)7094 469, email: michael.bruse@ruhrunibochum.de
FITNAH (Flow over Irregular Terrain with Natural and Anthropogenic Heat Sources)
A threedimensional numerical model for meteorological purposes and questions. It was developed at the Meteorological Institute of the University of Darmstadt and was the first mesoscale model in Germany. It is a nonhydrostatic model. It was used for example in Freiburg (Höllentäler) as well as in Darmstadt and Kassel to calculate drainage flows.
Hardware:
Program Development: Wippermann ,Groß
Literature: Groß 1989, HLFU 1988
Price: Not for sale
Contact:
Hardware:
Program Development:
Price:
Contact:
Solar radiation is from several points of view an important climate parameter for urban climate. This is particularly true for orographic highly structured urban areas. Radiation proportions can be very different over relatively short distances, especially when slope and orientation are changing.
For the evaluation of sun light conditions in complex urban structures are ambitious tools necessary. Therefore, GORETZKI (1990) developed a computer model for energetic simulations that aside from valuation of solar energetic properties of a planning concept also makes a spatial representation possible.
The program runs on a PC and is equipped as a sketching instrument with a CAD surface. The model is capable to work with up to 700 trees (monthly change of foliage) and 700 predefined buildings with a maximum of 5400 walls and 3200 windows. For every building the model divides incoming solar radiation in hourly intervals for every month and calculates reflexion, diffuse and direct solar radiation. The model considers slope and orientation of window areas as well as as shade caused by vegetation, near buildings and terrain. Next, the model calculates with the help of local climate and several building indicators heat requirements, solar heating contribution and rest heating requirements for every building as well as for the whole planning area. Thus, it is possible to compare several planning variants with regard to their energetic properties quantitatively so that single buildings or groups of buildings with bad sun light conditions can be identified.
Hardware: PC
Program Development: Dr. Peter Goretzki
Literature: Goretzki P. (1989), GOSOL  an instrument to increase passive solar energy use in urban planning; in "2nd European Conference on Architecture, Paris 89"; Hrsg. Commission of European Communities
Price: ?, services possible
Contact: Dr. Peter Goretzki, Zinsholzstraße 11, D70619 Stuttgart
IMMPROG (Immission Prediction for Polluntants from Point and Line Sources)
The whole IMMPROGpackage consists of the dispersion models IMMPROGP (point source), IMMPROG.H (line source) and IMMPROGC (urban canyon) as well as IMMPROGG (odour model). The programs are available as Windows versions. The point source model IMMPROGP corresponds to the Gaussian Model described by TA LUFT. TSP immissions or deposition calculations are also possible. Additionally, IMMPROGP is able to consider topography as well as inversions. The model supports calculations of emissions (vertical jets), too. Calculations for emissions from tunnel portals are also possible.
IMMPROGH corresponds to a large degree the Hiway2Modell of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, but IMMPROGH has a better correction of slow wind influence. The model improvement is first of all aligned with NOx and NO2 predication. When calculating the dispersion simulation IMMPROGH also considers turbulence caused by traffic. The calculations can be made for roadways in flat terrain or for terrain with small clefts.
IMMPROGC is a line model, which is based on the CPBMModell (Canyon Plume Box Modell) . It calculates the pollutant immissions of inert gases caused by traffic in urban canyons. The urban canyons should have buildings with equal height on both sides of the roadway. IMMPROGC is particularly suitable for areas in inner cities.
IMMPROGG is a odour model according to VDI. It is able to calculate temporal percentages combined with odour pollution.
Program Development: ?
Hardware: Windows ab 3.11, 8 MB Ram, 8 MB on harddisk, mouse
Price: WINIMMPROGWIPP 5060. DM, WIPH 4590. DM, WIPC 4240, WIPG 3410. DM
Contact: AirInfo AG Schweiz, Umweltbüro, Reuenberg 16, CH3257 Grossaffoltern, Tel.: +41 32 89 18 11 Fax.: + 41 32 89 18 11
IMMIVER (Pollutant dispersion near Roadways with Low Density Buildings in Urban Areas)
The programsystem IMMIVER simulates the pollutant dispersion of vehicle emissions in flat areas without buildings or low building density. It can also be used to approach background pollution in urban areas.
The calculations of emissions is based on emission factors for traffic published by the Bundesumweltamt in 1995. Meteorological input data is availale for almost every location in Germany at the Deutschen Wetter Dienst. The data is on diskette and can be read directly in the corresponding programs.
IMMIVER consists of the programs geoBaKa (Geomet BasisCadaster), galimo (Gaussian line model) and Emishow (emission representation). GeoBaKa generates and manages the streets file. Galimo reads this cadaster with a complete set of meteorological data, i.e. wind direction, wind speed and atmospheric stability and determines trafficcaused immissions in any calculationarea. On the one hand Emishow presents directly emissions of the cadaster or on the other hand emission in comparison to total emission or peakemission.
Hardware: PC 486, 66 Mhz and 16 MByte RAM
Program Development:
Price: 7500. (monthly lease possible)
Contact: GEOMET Umweltberatung und Regionalplanung, Luitpoldstraße 46, D10781 Berlin, Tel.: +49(0)30 216 5072, Fax: +49(0)30 215 7477
(exefile): D_GEOBAK ( 1.0 MB ) Version 1.0
(exefile): D_GALIMO ( 1.2 MB ) Version 1.0
(exefile): D_EMISHO ( 985 KB ) Version 1.0
ISIS Kfz 1.3
The model ISISKfz is based on emission factors determined and published by UBA. It was development for the Landesamtes für Umwelt und Geologie of Sachsen. The implemetation of ISISKfz to appraise immissions in this state is laid down in the framework of §40(2) BImSchG since 01.03.1997. Based on different building structures, widths of roadways and heights of houses immissions in the area of sidewalks are determined and depicted. Besides annual average and percentiles it is also possible to comprehend single wind direction and wind speed events and the consequence for the pollution.
The model offers a wide variety of subroutines to determine emissions (traffic density during the day, stopandgocalculations, etc.). It is possible to set the wind vector and so one can influence dispersion conditions directly. Furthermore, it is possible to alter drive power weighting for cars and trucks externally and adjust the model to specific car fleet or questions. The input data makes it possible for ISISKfz to determine immission concentrations for NO2, benzole and smoke as well as for a large number of other components for sidewalks at both sides of a roadway. All calculations are based on MISKAM simulations. ISISKfz can be operated as a grid model, when input and output data of traffic databases for a large road network are planned. Predestined for cartographical presentations of results are GEOInformationSystems. The dBasecompatible database of ISISKfz ensures a data processing without problems in most GISSystems. For ArcView 3.0 developed by ESRI the appropriate interface is available. Interfaces for IMMIS Luft developed by IVU and PROKAS of the company SFI GmbH as well as an additional noise module are planned.
Hardware: ISIS Kfz is available as 16bit version and runs under WINDOWS 3.11, WINDOWS 95/98 and WINDOWS NT.
Program Development: Büro für Umweltmeteorologie, Dipl. Met. Helmut Bangert, Paderborn
Price: 950, DM + taxes
Contact: BFU Software, Dipl.Met. H. Bangert, Ahdener Weg 10a, 33100 Paderborn, Tel.: 05251/680105, Fax 05251/680106, email: bfubangert@aol.com
KAMM (Karlsruher Mesoscale Model)
KAMM was developed by the Meteorologischen Institut in Karlsruhe. It is a nonhydrostatic threedimensional model that can be assigned to the mesoscale models, with the typical grid from 1to 5 km.
Several applications in BadenWürttemberg especially in the Oberrheingraben area.
Hardware: ?
Program Development: Prof. Dr. F. Fiedler, Dr. G. Adrian
Price: Not for sale
Contact: Institut fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Universitaet
Karlsruhe, Kaiserstr. 12, D76128 Karlsruhe
Tel.: +49(0)7247 82 2831, Fax: +49(0)7247 82 4742
The model uses the socalled low water equations, simplified (vertical integrated) forms of the basic equations of the stream mechanics. This simplification makes it possible that the model needs only a pretty short calculation time and little storage capacity on the harddrive. The term low water equations has become known. The equations can also be used to describe every relatively to the environment heavier fluid, e.g. water or cool air. Such a stream flow is characterized by:
 Drainage flow in complex terrain in accordance to slope
 Movement of a cold front over flat terrain
 Filling of sinks (cool air reserviors)
 Affection of stream flow direction and stream flow speed (pressure gradient) according to layer depth.
Within the low water equations the following influences are considered:
 Modification of local stream flow conditions by stream flow conditions of the environment (advection)
 Friction between the Earth's surface and atmosphere (varies with land use)
 Acceleration or deceleration of stream flow affected by alteration of terrain height and/or depth of the cool air layer
 Cool air production in accordance to land use.
The solution is a differential method with a variable number of grid points and grid values, i. e. topography and land use must be digitalized at every grid point. A shifted grid is used. To consider macroscale influences at a high resolution in the area of interest, the model can be run on a complex grid (nesting).
If there is no forming of a cool air reservoir, the calculation becomes
stationarily after 1 h, i. e. the calculated values don't change anymore. In general it is
useful to simulate 3 h out of 6 h. This seems to be a good simulation of conditions in
nature. For such a calculation the model needs less than 5 minutes calculation time
on a PC (40 x 40 grid points).
The model KALM calculates temporal development of cool air stream flow
beginning with zero stream flow at a given temporarily constant cool air production rate.
The cool air production rate as well as friction coefficients are affected by different
types of land use. At the moment the model considers 5 types of land use: high density
buildings, low density buildings, forest, open country and water. For the production of
cool air, friction coeffients and zero point displacement the model considers standard
values, which if there's any need can be changed. Furthermore, the model is in need
of topograpy data in digitalized form. Any scale can be chosen (in most cases 10 km
x 10 km).
The model considers depth of the cool air layer as well as two horizontal velocity components (eastwest and northsouth) and is then able to calculate the volume of the cool air stream flow.
For further processing of results the model offers postprocesses that make it possible to graph up calculated fields, to calculate and present cool air stream flow volumes, to visualize stream flows with the help of forward and backward trajectories and to present time series at any chosen point.
By joining together the with KALM calculated wind fields with Eulerian or Lagrangian dispersion models, for example LASAT, the pollutant dispersion in cool air stream flows can be calculated and be used in immission statistics.
Hardware: PC, 486 and higher
Programm Development: Dr. Schädler Ingenieurbüro Dr. A. Lohmeyer,
Prices: The program is not for sale
Calculations made with the help of KALM: Ingenieurbüro Dr. A. Lohmeyer, An der Roßweid 3, D76229 Karlsruhe, Tel. (+)49(0)721 625100, Fax: (+)49(0)721 6251030, email: lohmeyer_ka@tonline.de
KLIMM (Climate Model Mainz)
The mesoscale model KLIMM (Climate Model Mainz) was developed to simulate regional climate (urban heat island, local circulation systems etc.) and dispersion of pollutants in regional areas. Applications were mostly used to depict climatic properties of the RheinMainArea (comparison with the data of "Stadtklima Mainz", Danzeisen, 1989), the drawing up of a immission cadaster for the region MainzWiesbaden as well as the simulation of thermal induced circulations (mountain and valley winds, drainage flow).
Hardware:
Program development: Dr. J. Eichhorn
Price:
Contact: Dr. Joachim Eichhorn, Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, JohannesGuttenberg Universität Mainz, D55099 Mainz, Tel.: +49 (0)6131  39 2866, Fax.: +49 (0)6131  39 5567 , EMail: eichhorn@goofy.zdv.unimainz.de
LASAT (Lagrangian Simulation of Aerosol Transport)
The dispersion model LASAT calculates dispersion of traces substances in the atmosphere by simulating transport and dispersion of a group of representative substances after a random selection on a PC (Lagrangian Simulation). In contrast to other models there are several advantages. The accuracy in a range up to a few 100m is higher than the accuracy of classical diffusion equations. A point source is exactly treated as a point source. The user can choose the number of particles what makes it is possible to affect accuracy and speed of calculations.
LASAT is a tool for experts to appraise special dispersion situations. The user can name emissions sources in any number as point, line, area, grid or volumesources. LASAT simulates the following physical events dependent on time:
 Transport through medium wind
 Dispersion in the atmosphere
 Sedimentation of heavy aerosols
 Deposition on the ground (dry deposition)
 Erosion of trace substances caused by rain and wet deposition
 First order chemical transformation
 Gamma submersion (cloud radition) of radioactive substances
The program LASAT is available for PC as well as for Unixsystems.
Hardware: PC, 486
Program Development: Dr. L. Janicke
Price:
Contact: Ingenieurbüro Janicke, Alter Postweg 21, D26427 Dunum, Tel. ++49 (0) 4947 9120 35, www.janicke.de
LPDM (Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model of the DWD)
The Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model LPDM used by the Deutscher Wetterdienst is based on research of GLAAB (1986) and Vogel (1986). It considers pollutants as inert and neglects effects of gravitation and with a constant deposition velocity. The dispersion is simulated in the same way as with LASAT based on the calculation of a very large number of representative particle trajectories.
Literature: Glaab G. (1986), Lagrangesche Simulation der Ausbreitung
passiver Luftbeimengungen in inhomogener atmosphärischer Turbulenz. Diss. Inst. f. Met.
TH Darmstadt
Vogel H.(1986, Berechnung von Konzentrationsverteilungen mit einem Lagrange
Modell für mesoskalige Strömungsfelder, Diplomarbeit, Inst. f. Met. TH Darmstadt
Hardware: ?
Program Development: ?
Price: ?
Contact: Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach
Hardware:
Program Development: Geomet
Price: 1500DM monthly lease
Contact: GEOMET Umweltberatung und Regionalplanung, Luitpoldstraße 46, D10781 Berlin, Tel.: +49(0)30 216 5072, Fax: +49(0)30 215 7477
MEMI (Munich Energy Balance Model for Individuals)
MEMI is based like the thermal comfort equation according to Fanger on the energy balance equation of the human body for stationary conditions. But different from the approaches of Fanger MEMI uses real values of skin temperature and sweat evaporation. To calculate these two additional and unknown parameters equations for heat flux from the core of the body to the skin surface and from the skin surface to the surface of the clothing must be solved. The meteorological input parameters are the same as the parameters for the KlimaMichelModell. It is necessary to consider age and sex of chosen individuals. MEMI presents as results the following physiological parameters:
 Body temperature
 Average skin temperature
 Sweat rate
 Skin wetness
 Single heat fluxes
The Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) derived by MEMI for any location is defined as air temperature, at which in a typical room indoors the energy balance of a human being has the same values of skin and core temperature as under the conditions outdoors.
MEMI is fully described in VDIGuidelines 3787 Blatt 2 "Methoden zur humanbiometeorologischen Bewertung von Klima und Lufthygiene für die Stadt und Regionalplanung" Teil I: Klima behandelt.
Hardware: PC
Program Development: P.Höppe
Price: Free
Contact: Peter.Hoeppe@arbeits.med.unimuenchen.de
MEMO is a prognostic mesoscale model which allows describing air motion and dispersion of inert pollutants over complex terrain. The code allows multiple nesting. Within MEMO conservation equations for mass, momentum, and scalar quantities as potential temperature, turbulent kinetic energy and specific humidity are solved. The governing equations are solved in terraininfluenced coordinates. Nonequidistant grid spacing is allowed in all directions. The numerical solution is based on secondorder discretization applied on a staggered grid. Conservative properties are fully preserved within discrete model equations. Discrete pressure equations are solved with a fast elliptic solver in conjunction with a generalized conjugate gradient method. Advective terms are treated with the TVD scheme. Turbulent diffusion can be described with either a zero, one or twoequation turbulence model. At roughness height similarity theory is applied. The radiative heating / cooling rate in the atmosphere is calculated with an implicit multilayer method for shortwave radiation. The surface layer over land is computed from the surface heat budget equation. Soil temperature is calculated by solving an onedimensional heat conduction equation for soil. At lateral boundaries and for scalar quantities Neumann or Dirichlet conditions are applied. At lateral boundaries generalized radiation conditions are implemented.
Discretized equations are solved numerically on a staggered grid. Temporal discretization of prognostic equations is based on the explicit second order AdamsBashforth scheme, with two deviations, the first refering to the implicit treatment of the nonhydrostatic part of the mesoscale pressure perturbation. To ensure nondivergence of the flow field an elliptic equation is solved. The elliptic equation is derived from the continuity equation wherein velocity components are expressed in terms of mesoscale pressure perturbation. It should be noted that since the elliptic equation is derived from the discrete form of the continuity equation and the discrete form of the pressure gradient, conservativity is guaranteed. The discrete pressure equation is solved numerically with a fast elliptic solver in conjunction with a generalized conjugate gradient method. The fast elliptic solver is based on Fast Fourier Analysis in both horizontal directions and Gaussian elimination in vertical direction. The second deviation from the explicit treatment is related to urbulent diffusion in vertical direction. In case of an explicit treatment of this term, the stability requirement may necessitate an unacceptable abridgement of the time increment. To avoid this, vertical turbulent diffusion is treated using the second order CrankNicolson method. On principle, advective terms can be computed using any suitable advection scheme. In the present version of MEMO a 3D secondorder totalvariationdiminishing (TVD) scheme is used which is based on the 1D scheme (proposed by Harten). It achieves a fair reduction of numerical diffusion, the solution being independent of the magnitude of the scalar (i.e. preserving transportivity).
Several institutions and laboratories have formed a 'user community' (not formal) that works on development and testing of the model. The model is being used by various governmental and local authorities in several European countries. Users of MEMO should be meteorologists or engineers with a sufficient background in atmospheric sciences and some experience in the use of numerical simulation models.
Many applications including the AutoOil study, simulations of wind flow in the Valley of Mexico, the Heilbronn ozone experiment, the Air Quality assessment for the new airport in Athens, extended studies for the Greater Athens and Thessaloniki areas and several other urban air quality studies (Stuttgart area, Milano conurbation, Casablanca, Barcelona, several cases in Switzerland, Lisbon, Strasbourg etc.)
Hardware:
Developer: Institut für Technische Thermodynamik (ITT), Universität
Karlsruhe,
Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering (LHTEE), Aristotle University
Thessaloniki
References
Moussiopoulos, N. (1987) An efficient scheme to calculate radiative
transfer in mesoscale models. Environmental software 2, 172191.
Moussiopoulos, N. (1989) Mathematische Modellierung mesoskaliger Ausbreitung in der
Atmosphaere, Fortschr.Ber, VDI, Reihe 15, Nr. 64, pp. 307.
Moussiopoulos, N. and Flassak, Th. (1989) A fully vectorized fast direct solver of the
Helmholtz equation, in: Applications of supercomputers in engineering: Algorithms,
computer systems and user experience (Brebbia, C.A. and Peters A., eds.), Elsevier,
Amsterdam 6777.
Kunz R. and Moussiopoulos N. (1995) Simulation of the wind field in Athens using refined
boundary conditions, Atmos. Environ. 29, 35753591.
WortmannVierthaler M. and Moussiopoulos N. (1995), Numerical tests of a refined flux
corrected transport advection scheme, Environmental Software 10, 157175.
Moussiopoulos N., Sahm P., Karatzas K., Papalexiou S. and Karagiannidis A. (1997),
Assessing the impact of the new Athens airport to urban air quality with air pollution
models, Atmos. Environ. 31, 14971511.
Moussiopoulos N., Ernst G., Flassak Th., Kessler Ch., Sahm P., Kunz R., Schneider Ch.,
Voegele T., Karatzas K., Megariti V. and Papalexiou S. (1997), The EUMAC Zooming Model, a
tool supporting environmental policy decisions in the local to regional scale, in
Tropospheric Modelling and Emission Estimation (Ebel A., Friedrich R. and Rodhe H., eds),
Transport and Chemical Transformation of Pollutants in the Troposphere, Vol. 7, Springer,
Heidelberg, 8196.
Moussiopoulos N., Sahm P., Kunz R., Vögele T., Schneider Ch. and Kessler Ch. (1997), High
resolution simulations of the wind flow and the ozone formation during the Heilbronn ozone
Experiment, Atmos. Environ. 31, 31773186.
Schneider Ch., Kessler Ch. and Moussiopoulos N. (1997), Influence of emission input data
on ozone level predictions for the upper Rhine valley, Atmos. Environ. 31,
31873205.
Kunz R. and Moussiopoulos N. (1997), Implementation and assessment of an oneway nesting
technique for high resolution wind flow simulations, Atmos. Environ. 31, 31673176.
Preis: ?
Contact person (providing all necessary technical support): Dr.Ing. R.
Kunz Contact address Institut für Technische Thermodynamik,
Fakultät für Maschinenbau, Universität Karlsruhe, Kaiserstr.12, D76128 Karlsruhe,
Germany,
Phone number +49 721 6084370, Fax number +49 721 6083931, Email address rainer.kunz@mach.unikarlsruhe.de,
URL http://itt17.mach.unikarlsruhe.de/
METDIA (Regional diagnostic stream flow model)
METDIA is a regional stream flow model that is capable to
calculate a stationary wind field over complex terrain on the one hand on the basis of
wind measurements or on the other hand on the basis of a known macroscale stream.
METDIA is a diagnostic model. Diagnostic models are based on the physical principle of
mass continuity. Diagnostic models modify a given initial wind field in way
that the resultant wind field is stationary and free of divergence. The crucial
dynamic influences of orography (terrain height) and land use can be seen in results
of diagnostic models with sensibly chosen initial wind. Thermal influences cannot be
captured. Only the influence of atmospheric stratification on the stream flow field
can be considered in the simple way of using the initial wind field and weighting factors
to control bypassing flow and overflow of
obstacles.
The model equations in METDIA are solved in a coordinate system that follows
topography. Numerical solution of the PoissonEquation is done with a LSORmethod. The
grid can be chosen nonequidistant in three directions.
Area of Applications:
 Making out of synthetic wind statistics for locations in complex terrain
 Transfer of measured wind statistics onto adjacent locations
 Preparation of threedimensional wind fields for dispersion models
 Estimation of potential wind energy for locations of planned wind power
plants
Hardware: PC, 486er and higher
Program Development: Dr. Klaus Bigalke, METCON Umweltmeteorologische Beratung
Price: Model not for sale, price list for calculations / reports on request
Information: METCON Umweltmeteorologische Beratung Dr. Klaus Bigalke, Jappopweg 9h, 25421
Pinneberg
Tel. (+)49(0)4101 693856, Fax (+)49(0)4101 693857, Email: metcon@tonline.de
METKAT (Drainage Flow Model)
METKAT is a drainage flow model that is based on a special
form of the vertical integrated motion equations, the socalled low water equations. With
it the model considers that the cool air layer near the ground is mixed
homogeneously. The model calculates, under consideration of ground friction,
buoyancy, mixing processes at the upper margin of the cool air layer and the local cool
air production, the horizontal distribution of the cool air layer depth and the horizontal
wind. Additionally, it is possible to consider dispersion of emissions near the ground in
the cool air layer.
Area of applications:
 Influence of buildings on drainage flows, fresh air in urban area
 Modification of drainage flow systems through changing terrain
profiles
 Analysis of present situations for land use
 Planning of emitting facilities
Hardware: PC, 486 and higher
Program Development: Dr. Klaus Bigalke, METCON Umweltmeteorologische Beratung
Price: Model not for sale, price list for calculations / reports on request
Information: METCON Umweltmeteorologische Beratung Dr. Klaus Bigalke, Jappopweg 9h, 25421
Pinneberg
Tel. (+)49(0)4101 693856, Fax (+)49(0)4101 693857, Email: metcon@tonline.de
METDOTO (Odour dispersion model)
Model to calculate odour frequency distributions based on
the draft version of VDIRichtlinie 3782, Bl. 4
Hardware: PC, 486 and higher
Program Development: Dr. Klaus Bigalke, METCON Umweltmeteorologische Beratung
Price: Not for sale, calculation services offered
Information: METCON Umweltmeteorologische Beratung Dr. Klaus Bigalke, Jappopweg 9h, 25421
Pinneberg
Tel. (+)49(0)4101 693856, Fax (+)49(0)4101 693857, Email: metcon@tonline.de
METSUN (Sun Shadow Model)
METSUN is a model to calculate sunlight and shade
conditions in urban areas or in complex terrain. It calculates (for any height above the
ground) the percentage of sun shadow time for areas according to astronomical possible sun
shine duration. The percentage of shade can be determined as integral value over a whole
year, single months, days or hours.
The model is able to make out, under consideration of future projects and given
environment, spatial presentations of total shade and additional shade. Depending on
direct solar radiation, the model estimates the maximum solar energy that is
available for a given area.
Areas of applications :
 Building planning, for example structural planning of buildings and
groups of buildings
 Regional planning, e.g. route or residential planning
Hardware: PC, 486 and higher
Program Development: Dr. Klaus Bigalke, METCON Umweltmeteorologische Beratung
Price: Model not for sale, prices for calculations / costs of reports must be
requested
Information: METCON Umweltmeteorologische Beratung Dr. Klaus Bigalke, Jappopweg 9h, 25421
Pinneberg
Tel. (+)49(0)4101 693856, Fax (+)49(0)4101 693857, Email: metcon@tonline.de
METTAL (Dispersion Program according to TALuft)
Program to calculate dispersion according to appendix C of the TA Luft
Program Development: Dr. Klaus Bigalke, METCON Umweltmeteorologische Beratung
Price: Model not for sale, Prices for calculations / reports can be requested
Information: METCON Umweltmeteorologische Beratung Dr. Klaus Bigalke, Jappopweg 9h, 25421
Pinneberg
Tel. (+)49(0)4101 693856, Fax (+)49(0)4101 693857, Email: metcon@tonline.de
a. (Mesoscale ChemistryTransportStreamFlow Model)
METRAS was developed by the Meteorological Institute of the
University of Hamburg in cooperation with the AlfredWegener Institut für Polar und
Meeresforschung in Bremerhaven and the Institut fuer Troposphaerenforschung, Leipzig.
Details to this nonhydrostatic threedimensional mesoscale chemistry, transport and
stream flow model can be found: (http://www.mi.unihamburg.de/data/Meso/metras/metras_short_description.html)
Hardware: Workstations necessary
Program Development: PD Dr. K.H. Schluenzen et al.
Literature http://www.mi.unihamburg.de/data/Meso/metras/metras_publications.html
Price: Not for sale, the model is available for research
Contact: Auskunft bei Frau PD Dr Schluenzen, Meteorologisches Institut, Zentr. f. Meeres
u.Klimaforschung,
Universitaet Hamburg, Bundesstr. 55, D20146 Hamburg (Germany); email: schluenzen@dkrz.de,
phone : +49404123.5082, fax : +49404117.3350.
b. METRAS PC (mesoscale Stream Flow for PC)
METRAS PC was developed for the Umweltbundesamtes (FE 104 04 354), based on
the model METRAS. Details to this nonhydrostatic threedimensional mesoscale stream flow
model
can be found: http://www.mi.unihamburg.de/data/Meso/metraspc/metraspc.html
Hardware: PC, Windows 95
Program Development: K.H. Schluenzen, S. Dierer, H. Panskus (Meteorologisches Institut,
Universitaet Hamburg) und K. Bigalke (METCON Umweltmeteorologische Beratung, Pinneberg)
Literature http://www.mi.unihamburg.de/data/Meso/metraspc/metraspc.html
Price: 100 DM
Contact: Frau PD Dr Schluenzen, Meteorologisches Institut, Zentr. f. Meeres u.
Klimaforschung, Universitaet Hamburg, Bundesstr. 55, D20146 Hamburg (Germany); email:
schluenzen@dkrz.de,
phone : +49404123.5082, fax : +49404117.3350.
c. WinMETRAS (METRAS PC for Windows 95)
Information: METCON Umweltmeteorologische Beratung Dr. Klaus Bigalke,
Jappopweg 9h, 25421 Pinneberg, Tel. (+)49(0)4101 693856, Fax
(+)49(0)4101 693857, Email: metcon@tonline.de
Free test version in the Internet (http://home.tonline.de/home/metcon/)
MIMO is a prognostic microscale model that allows to describe air motion near complex building structures. Within MIMO, conservation equations for mass, momentum, and scalar quantities as potential temperature, turbulent kinetic energy and specific humidity are solved. Nonequidistant grid spacing is allowed in all directions. The numerical solution is based on secondorder discretization applied on a staggered grid. Conservation properties are fully preserved within discrete model equations. Discrete pressure equations are solved with a fast elliptic solver in conjunction with a generalized conjugate gradient method. Advective terms are treated with an FCT scheme. Turbulent diffusion can be described with either a one or twoequation turbulence model. At roughness height similarity theory is applied. At lateral boundaries and for scalar quantities Neumann or Dirichlet conditions are applied. generalized radiation conditions are also implemented for lateral boundaries.
The discretized equations are solved numerically on a staggered grid. Temporal discretization of prognostic equations is based on the explicit second order AdamsBashforth scheme, with exception of the pressure. To ensure nondivergence of the flow field an elliptic equation is solved. The elliptic equation is derived from the continuity equation wherein velocity components are expressed in terms of the pressure. It should be noted that since the elliptic equation is derived from the discrete form of the continuity equation and the discrete form of the pressure gradient, conservativity is guaranteed. The discrete pressure equation is solved numerically with a fast elliptic solver in conjunction with a generalized conjugate gradient method. The fast elliptic solver is based on fast Fourier analysis in both horizontal directions and Gaussian elimination in the vertical direction. On principle, advective terms can be computed using any suitable advection scheme. In the present model version secondorder fluxcorrectedtransport scheme (FCT, WortmannVierthaler and Moussiopoulos 1995) is implemented. It achieves a fair reduction of numerical diffusion, the solution being independent of the magnitude of the scalar (i.e. preserving transportivity).
Hardware:
Developer: Institut für Technische Thermodynamik (ITT), Universität
Karlsruhe,
Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering (LHTEE), Aristotle University
Thessaloniki
References
Winkler, Ch. (1995) Mathematische Modellierung der quellnahen
Ausbreitung von Emissionen, Fortschr.Ber, VDI, Reihe 7, Nr. 268, pp. 142.
WortmannVierthaler, M. and Moussiopoulos, N. (1995) Numerical test of a refined flux
corrected transport (FCT) advection scheme, Environmental Software, 10, 157175.
Götting, J., Winkler, Ch., Rau, M., Moussiopoulos, N. and Ernst, G. (1995) Plume
dispersion over builtup areas: a comparison of numerical results and wind tunnel studies,
in: Air Pollution III, 1, (Eds.: Power, h., Moussiopoulos, N. and Brebbia, C.),
Computational Mechanics Publications, 413420.
Götting, J., Winkler, Ch., Rau, M., Moussiopoulos, N. and Ernst, G. (1997) Dispersion of
a passive pollutant in the vicinity of a Ushaped building, Int. J. Env. Poll., 8,
No. 36, 718726.
Martinuzzi, R. (1992) Experimentelle Untersuchung der Umströmung wandgebundener,
rechteckiger, prismatischer Hindernisse, Dissertation Universität
ErlangenNürnberg.
Klein, P., Rau, M., Wang, Z. and Plate, E. (1995) Concentrations and flow field in the
neighbourhood of buildings and building complexes (wind tunnel experiments), Research
Programme for Air Pollution Prevention Measures, Annual Report, Forschungszentrum
Karlsruhe.
Price: ?
Contact person (providing all necessary technical support): Dr.Ing. R.
Kunz Contact address Institut für Technische Thermodynamik,
Fakultät für Maschinenbau, Universität Karlsruhe, Kaiserstr.12, D76128 Karlsruhe,
Germany,
Phone number +49 721 6084370, Fax number +49 721 6083931, Email address rainer.kunz@mach.unikarlsruhe.de,
URL http://itt17.mach.unikarlsruhe.de/
MISKAM (Microscale Climate and Dispersion Model)
The program MISKAM is one of the most sophisticated microscale model considering physical background. The Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre of the University of Mainz develops the MISKAM as well as KLIMM (a mesoscale model).
MISKAM is a threedimensional nonhydrostatic stream flow and dispersion model that is able to predict wind distributions and immission concentrations with a very high resolution starting at the level of roadways up to bigger parts of urban areas. It was initially developed to depict microclimatic problems (EICHHORN, 1989) and is now also available in a PC version for immission prediction.
MISKAM treats buildings as rightangled block structures explicitly, what makes it possible to model stream flows next to buildings realistically. MISKAM uses as basis the complete threedimensional motion equations to simulate stream flow conditions as well as the advection diffusion equation of density neutral substances for dispersion calculations, considering also sedimentation and deposition. Polluntant sources can be distributed as point and line sources in any combination within a certain given model area.
The area of applications of MISKAM is the area of microspatial dispersion processes up to few 100m. Thus, MISKAM is especially suitable in planning processes of roadways und urban areas. Besides the DOS version there is also the Windows versionWINMISKAM available.
The source code for the programs comes with the input and output routines what makes the integration of other programs easier.
Hardware: PentiumPC, 16 MByte RAM
Program Development: Dr.J. Eichhorn, Arbeitsgruppe Stadtklima, Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Johannes GutenbergUniversität, D55099 Mainz
Contact: gieseeichhorn * umweltmeteorologische software, Am Spielplatz 2, 55263 Wackernheim
Tel 0613262947, Fax 0613262961
Price: On request
(exefile): D_MISKAM ( 351 KB ) Version 3.0, 3/94
MLuS96P (Dispersion near Roadways with or without Low Density Buildings)
The software MLuS96P is based on the "Merkblatt ueber Luftverunreinigungen an Strassen (MLuS  92) (ergänzt 1996) Teil: Strassen ohne oder mit lockerer Randbebauung" of the "Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Strassen und Verkehrswesen (5000 Koeln 21, AlfredSchuetteAllee 10, Tel.0221/883033" and makes it possible to calculate pollution near roadways pretty fast. The program MLuS96P is more powerful than the program MLuS92 and offers several additional calculations. For example direct integration of existing pollution as well as calculations of total pollution. The program allows a direct comparison of results with threshold values according to different guidelines.
The program MLuS96P is widely menu controlled and allows an instantaneous display of results (even with changed input parameters) in a spread sheet on the screen.
The program also allows an appraisal of relevant annual averages and percentiles of the immission situation of the following pollution components:
CO, VOCs, C6H6, NO, NO2, Pb, SO2, PM
The program MLuS96P can be used like the leaflet MLus92/96 under the following preconditions:
 Traffic density between 5000 and 120 000 vehicles in 24h
 Speed 50 km/h and higher
 Truck speed of a maximum of 80 km/h
 Portion of trucks up to 50%
 Slope of roadways under 6%
 Two and more lanes
 Distance to roadways starting with 0 m up to 200 m
To use the calculation model the following traffic and meteorological data must be known:
 Average daily traffic density according to DTV (vehicles/24h)
 Average carspeed (km/h)
 Average truckspeed (km/h)
 Annual average of wind speed in a height of 10 m above the ground (m/s)
 Annual average percentage of hourly averages of wind speed under 3 m/s
Hardware: MLuS96P runs on all IBM compatible PC
Program Development: Klaus Dudek, 1992/96; Prof. Dr. J. Baumüller
Price: 500. DM
Contact: Klaus Dudek, Phys.Techn. Berechnungsbuero, 7000 Stuttgart 1, Silberburgstr. 26
(exefile): D_MluS96 (107 KB) Version 96
MUKLIMO (Microscale Urban Climate Model)
The numerical model MUKLIMO is a twodimesional, prognostic grid point model to calculate atmospherical conditions in the area of block structures. It was developed during 19801983 in the framework of the project "Numerische Simulation des Stadtklimas" sponsored by the Umweltbundesamt and is described in "A microscale urban climate model" (SIEVERS und ZDUNKOWSKI, 1986) . The PC version is especially programmed to calculate dispersion of vehicle exhaustion. On the one hand and in contrast to the original version the PC version is limited to the calculation of wind field and turbulent exchange coefficients as well as pollutant dispersion. On the other hand there are additional program parts that make it possible to model porous buildings as well as forests (SIEVERS, 1990).
The twodimensional character of the model is an idealization of real conditions. That means that horizontal direction is in existence and along this direction model structures as well as atmospherical conditions are unchangeable. This direction is called yaxis. Thus, variables are only depending on a second horizontal coordinate x and the vertical coordinate z. The assumption of only two dimensions is a good approximation when considering long roadways with uniform margins on both sides, especially then, when atomspherical stream flow towards the roadway occurs in a small angle. It is necessary to paid attention when using the twodimesional results when the wind direction is almost parallel to the route, because the model doesn't consider the influence of an intersection.
The user defines the framework of the model, i.e. grid structure, height and contours of obstacles, location and amount of emissions of sources, windspeed and other parameters with the help of a special input file.
It is possible to model up to 10 (perpendicular to the model plane) line sources of an inert pollutant like CO.
Literature:
SIEVERS, U. und W.ZDUNKOWSKI (1986): A microscale urban climate model.
Beitr. Phys. Atmosph. 59, S. 1340.
SIEVERS, U. (1990): Dreidimensionale Simulationen in Stadtgebieten.
Umweltmeteorologie: Sitzung des Hauptausschusses II am 7. und 8. Juni 1990 inLahnstein.
Schriftenreihe Band 15, Kommission Reinhaltung der Luft im VDI und DIN. Düsseldorf. S.
3643.
Hardware : Das Programm MUKLIMO.EXE läuft auf einem IBMPC oder Kompatiblen mit einem Prozessor ab 386 unter MSDOS (ab 5.0). Ein mathematischer Koprozessor sollte vorhanden sein. Das Programm hat einen Umfang von ca. 210 kB.
Program Development: Dr. U. Sievers
Price: ca. 300. DM
Contact: Dr. Uwe Sievers, Ulmenstraße 7, D55270 Essenheim, Tel. 06136/8372
The model MUKLIMO3 (SIEVERS, 1990) is the threedimensional version of the original model MUKLIMO. Important are the following changes:
The needed preconditions for urban areas in relation to wind speed, temperature and moisture are generated with the help of a onedimensional model. The atmospherical variables can only be changed in vertical direction and are constant in horizontal direction. This model reaches with 3 km extension in vertical direction in greater heights than MUKLIMO3. It must run for several hours to generate vertical profiles of atmospherical variables as well as soil temperature and soil moisture. After that the actual simulation with MUKLIMO3 starts.
Hardware:
Program Development: Sievers U.
Literature: GROSS, G.: Numerical simulation of the nocturnal flow systems in the Freiburg area for different topographies. Beitr. Phys. Atmosph. 62 (1989), S. 57  72.
SIEBERT, J.; SIEVERS; U.; ZDUNKOWSKI, W.:A onedimensional simulation of the interaction between land surface processes and the atmosphere. BoundaryLayer Meteorology 59, S. 1  34, 1992
SIEVERS, U.:
Dreidimensionale Simulationen in Stadtgebieten. In: Umweltmeteorologie, Sitzung des
Hauptausschusses II am 7. und 8. Juni in Lahnstein. Schriftenreihe Band 15, Kommission
Reinhaltung der Luft im VDI und DIN, Düsseldorf, 1990
SIEVERS, U; ZDUNKOWSKI, W.:
A microscale urban climate model. Beitr. Phys. Atmosph. 59, 13 40, 1986
Price : Model not for sale, services are offered
Contact: Deutscher Wetterdienst, Geschäftsfeld Klima und
Umweltberatung,
Postfach 10 04 65, D63004 Offenbach, Tel.: +49(0)69 8062 2968, Fax:+49(0)69 8062 2993
Hardware:
Program Development:
Price:
Contact:
P&K_xxxx (Dispersion Programs according to TA Luft and VDIGuidelines)
P&K_3781 is a model to calculate stack height according to TA Luft 86 including correction for complex terrain according to VDI 3781 Blatt2.
P&K_3782, dispersion calculation according to VDI 3782 Blatt1 and TA Luft 86 for reports and clean air plans. It is possible to consider a large number of point, line and area sources as well as deposition areas with background conditions. Dispersion statistics with precipitation can also be processed. For this program the options KÜHLTURM (consideration of cooling tower plumes), ISOLINIEN (presentation of isolines) and EXPERTE (diurnal and annual means and variations) are available.
P&K_odor dispersion calculations for odours according to VDI 3782 Blatt 4 and Faktor10Methode (with isolines plots)
P&K_3783 , dispersion calculations for accidentially released pollutants according to VDI 3783 Blatt 1 and 2 in a integrated realization of both guidelines.
P&K_mlus, dispersion calculations for pollutants caused by traffic according to MLuS 92 including isolines plots
Hardware: PC, Windows, VGA Monitor
Program Development:B. Petersen, R. Kade
Prices: www.petersenkade.com/preise.html
Contact: Broder Petersen, Rowald Kade, PCSoftware für Ingenieure, Stellinger Weg 16, D20 255 Hamburg, Tel.: +49(0)40 494549, Fax: +49(0)40 2791045
more info: www.petersenkade.com
REWIMET (Wind Field Simulation, mesoscale, VDI 3783 Blatt 6 1992)
The model REWIMETA is a hydrostatic ThreeLayerMesoscaleModel for applications in areas with a horizontal extension between 20 and 200 km and with a horizontal resolution of 2 to 10 km. The model calculates horizontal wind components and potential temperature timedependent as layer averages for every section of the grid. The depth of the mixing layer will be predicted, vertical velocity and ExnerFunction are determined diagnostically for every section of the grid.
The model considers an extensive (suprascale) stratification of temperature, an extensive (suprascale) horizontal pressure gradient (geostrophical wind) and surface temperature. Geostrophical wind and surface temperature don't have to be timedependent. Geostrophical wind can depend on height above the ground.
The model considers topography (orography and land use as inhomogenetic terrain height, roughness and surface temperature). Topography can be read through a topography cadaster (DHM).
Typical areas of applications are:
 Calculations of regional wind fields and depth of the mixing layer over the course of several days (e.g. smog period)
 Calculations of dispersion relevant meteorological parameters
 Determination of regional structures of dispersion parameters under bad conditions (e.g. deep inversions)
 Smog warning or malfunction scenarios
 Calculations of forward and backward trajectories
 Area covering prepartion of regional frequency statistics of wind speed and wind direction, depth of the mixing layer as well as turbulence parameters
Hardware: PC
Program Development: Heimann 1985
Price:
Contact: Kommission Reinhaltung der Luft (KRdL) im VDI und DIN, RobertStolzStr. 5, Postfach 10 11 39, D40002 Düsseldorf,Tel.: +49(0)211 6214 0, email: ?, Homepage:
SHADOW (Simulation of Radiation)
The model SHADOW is especially programmed to calculate distribution of shortwave radation (solar radiation) in a model area. It can be used for investigations in urban areas as well as for topoclimatological or agrarmeteorological questions, because besides the constellation of shadowing objects the model considers the course of the topography, too.
The menu controlled surface makes a fast and secure access to implemented subroutines possible. Results can be displayed directly on the screen because of builtin graphical routines or can be transformed in text files and with it exported in other programs. The program offers:
 Calculations of incoming shortwave radiation in relative and absolute values in time and space
 Calculations of shade
 Calculation of slope and exposition
 Calculation of SkyViewFactors
 Calculations with resultsfile
 Graphical presentation of results
Hardware: PC, Windows 3.11 and higher
Program Development: Michael Bruse in Zusammenarbeit mit der Arbeitsgruppe Klimaforschung, Leitung Prof. Dr. H. Fleer am Geographischen Institut der RuhrUniversität Bochum
Price:
Contact: Michael Bruse, RuhrUniversität Bochum, Geographische Institut, Universitätsstraße 150, D44780 Bochum, Tel.: +49(0) 234 700 4244, Fax: +49(0) 234 7094 469, email: Michael Bruse@rz.ruhrunibochum,de
(exefile): D_SHADOW.EXE ( 470 KB )
STREET (Pollution in urban areas)
Hardware: PC
Program Development: TÜV Energie und Umwelt GmbH
Price: Street Version 1.2 xxx. DM, Street 2.0 (Jumbo) xxxx. DM
Contact: TÜV Energie und Umwelt GmbH,
Raiffeisenstrasse 30, D70794 Filderstadt
Tel.: +49(0)711 7706 216, Fax: +49(0)711 7706 506
VDI 3782 Bl.1 (Gaussian Dispersion Model for Clean Air Plans)
The Gaussian dispersion model simulates the process of dilution and transport of emitted substances (transmission). To use the model emission data and meteorological parameters must be known. The Gaussian Dispersion Equation ensues from the statistical theory of turbulence under a series of limiting conditions. The advantage of the Gaussian Dispersion Model in contrast to more complex models is that scattering was gained in experimental dispersion investigations. Thus, the model is an empirical dispersion model with relatively short calculation times.
The model is particularly used to determine immissions, that means first of all statistical indicators (average, percentiles). The model presupposes constant emission and dispersion conditions in flat terrain. The consideration of terrain and buildings is described in the VDI Guidelines 3783 Bl. 6 and 3781 Bl. 6.
Hardware: PC
Program Development: ?
Price: ?
Contact: Kommission Reinhaltung der Luft im VDI und DIN, Postfach 10 11 39, D40 Düsseldorf, Tel.: +49(0)211 6214 0
VDI 3945 Bl.1 (Gaussian Cloud Model (PuffModel))
The Gaussian CloudModel is in contrast to the Gaussian Plume Model (VDI 3782) a case model , which describes the temporal course of concentration distribution. The model assumes that pollution caused by a point sources forms a little cloud, which enlarges with time and moves with wind. The advantage of this assumption is that the emission of the source must not be constant.
A wellknown software version is not available.
Hardware:
Program Development:
Price:
Contact: Kommission Reinhaltung der Luft im VDI und DIN, Postfach 10 11 39, D40 Düsseldorf, Tel.: +49(0)211 6214 0
WINMISKAM (Microscale Climate and Dispersion Model for Windows)
The program WINMISKAM is a Windowsversion of MISKAM. In addition to the functions of MISKAM it is also possible to calculate statistical indicators of air pollution.
Hardware: PC,
Program Development: Dr. Eichhorn( basic version) Dr. Flassak (Windowsversion)
Price:
Contact: SFI GmbH, An der Roßweid 3, D76229 Karlsruhe, Tel. (+)49(0)721 625100, Fax: (+)49(0)721 6251030, email: lohmeyer_ka@tonline.de
(exefile): D_WINMIS.EXE ( 2.3 MB )
Do you offer software or do you know software that is not mentioned
above or that must be updated, please send me your papers (as text file):
PD Dr. Andreas Matzarakis Universität
Freiburg, Meteorologisches Institut, Hebelstr. 27, 79085 Freiburg, Germany
Tel.: +49 (0)761/ 203 6921; Fax: +49 (0)761/ 203 6922; email: andreas.matzarakis@meteo.unifreiburg.de